What is open heart surgery?
Open heart surgery is a procedure commonly performed for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (for treatment of blocked arteries after a heart attack or to prevent a heart attack) and/or heart valve repair or replacement. In the case of coronary artery disease, open heart surgery is often advised when blockages are too diffuse for angioplasty and stenting or the arteries are too difficult to access via catheterisation.
Mitral and/or aortic valve repair or replacement are also common open heart surgery procedures and may stem from a case of childhood rheumatic fever, or perhaps valve damage associated with viral or bacterial endocarditis.
Other reasons for open heart surgery may stem from a congenital heart defect or a heart transplant. No matter what the reason for your operation, the recovery time and subsequent exercise prescription are quite similar.
►Tips for Safe Exercise After Angioplasty and Stent
►Tips for Safe Exercise After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
►Tips for Safe Exercise After a Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
►Tips for Safe Exercise With Atrial Fibrillation (AF or A-Fib)
►Safe Exercise With an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator
Recovery Time After Open Heart Surgery
In many cases, recovery time after open heart surgery may span six to eight weeks. Because each case is different, you should adhere to the specific guidelines provided by your surgeon or cardiologist. While bed rest is important, it is equally important that you perform low level activity during the recovery phase.
Practical activities such as walking, even at a slow pace, are important for staving off the negative effects of both the surgery and bed rest (i.e., muscle atrophy, muscle and joint stiffness, loss of balance and coordination).
It is quite common for a physical therapist to visit you immediately after open heart surgery to get you up on your feet for short duration walks around the hospital floor.
Most open-heart surgery patients are discharged from the hospital and return home between four and six days.
Aerobic Activity Guidelines After Open Heart Surgery
Before taking up any exercise program after open heart surgery, it is advisable to discuss your plans for activity with your surgeon or cardiologist.
As mentioned above, low-level walking is advised in the immediate post-operative phase, but in order to advance to higher exercise intensities, you’d be well advised to partake in a structured cardiac rehabilitation program. This will help you establish safe exercise intensity limits you can follow out on your own.
As a general rule, engage in aerobic exercises that work the large musculature of your lower body (i.e., your hips/legs), are rhythmic in nature, and can be performed over an extended period of time (i.e., 20+ minutes).
One of the main complaints about aerobic exercise is that it’s boring, so be sure to choose something you enjoy. This will help improve your chances of sticking with it over the long-term!
If you feel exhausted after open heart surgery, then congratulations, you’re totally normal! Any open heart procedure places significant stress on the body so give yourself permission to be human!
Begin with multiple (6-8) short duration exercise bouts of about 3-5 minutes each per day. Then gradually work up to progressively longer duration bouts fewer times per day. Aim to progress to 40-60 minutes non-stop at a comfortable pace as you advance through the recovery phase.
Sample Exercise Program After Bypass Surgery
The following is an illustration of a sample exercise plan which may serve as a rough guide (provided your surgical team agrees). The aim is to wean yourself from shorter to longer exercise durations by minimizing how many exercise bouts you perform each day.
|Recovery Week||Minutes||Times per Day|
Pay attention to how you feel as you progress from week to week. If you fatigue easily and feel shortness of breath, then you may need to lower your pace, reduce the duration of each exercise bout, or perhaps reduce the number of exercise bouts per day.
Effects of Medications
Medications such as beta-blockers will reduce your heart rate response to a given exercise workload, so your pulse may not be an accurate indicator of how hard you’re working. Heart rate aside, gradually work up to a moderate to somewhat heard pace where you’re breathing just hard enough to perform the exercise but can still carry on a conversation with an exercise buddy. In exercise physiologist parlance, this is known as “the talk test.”
Aerobic Exercise Precautions After Open Heart Surgery
Perform a gradual 5 to 10 minute warm-up and cool down before and after each exercise session, respectively. Obviously this is more relevant during the longer duration activities. It will allow your body to gradually accommodate the high intensities and minimize the risk of adverse events.
- Try to avoid over-exerting yourself immediately following open heart surgery. Remember your heart is trying to heal itself, so any sharp rise in heart rate and blood pressure could plausibly aggravate the situation. Stick to the KISS acronym: Keep It Slow and Steady! If you have any questions about intensity, please discuss this with your heart surgeon or cardiologist.
- Slowly establish your “fitness foundation.” Walking and cycling are two common activities which most people can reasonably handle without any ill effects. Initially stick to level surfaces, but in time you’ll be able to graduate to climbing hills. If you find yourself short of breath and gasping for air, just ease up the pace a bit.
- Watch out for environmental stressors such as cold, heat, or strong winds. Any of these factors can make your exercise routine seem more difficult than usual.
- Be vigilant of any exercise-induced signs or symptoms and report them to your doctor immediately. For example, if you feel chest pain or discomfort, slow your pace or stop exercise altogether. If the symptoms do not subside with cessation of exercise, or it gets worse during rest, then seek emergency medical care.
Exercising at the Gym After Open Heart Surgery
After you complete your cardiac rehabilitation, you may be cleared to participate in a self-guided exercise program at your local gym. But before you dive into it, it may be advisable to find out if the staff is qualified and equipped to work with cardiac patients. Ask if there are any trainers with experience working with people with heart problems. Ask if they have all the relevant emergency protocols in place (i.e., dial 911 [or 000, 111 in some countries]and perhaps an on-site automated external defibrillator (AED).
Strength Training Guidelines For Open Heart Surgery
Strength training is now recognised as an integral part of any post- open heart surgery recovery plan. It can be safely administered in properly risk stratified cardiac patients who are stable and medically-managed.
While weight lifting might seem counter-intuitive after an open heart procedure, quite the opposite is true. Where surgery and bed-rest can lead to muscle atrophy and wasting, resistance training is a great way to offset these negative health effects and promote healing.
It may be advisable to start off with lighter weights of not much more than 4.5 kilos (10 pounds) during the first 4 to 6 weeks of recovery or until receiving the go-ahead from your surgeon or cardiologist.
After that, progress at a slow and steady pace (ideally with guidance from an exercise physiologist or physical therapist) to minimize delayed onset muscle soreness.
Carry out your strength training regimen with proper lifting and breathing technique. Exhale on the exertion (lifting) phase of the movement. Or as a general rule, do not hold your breath or strain during a lift.
For an overall body workout, target all major muscle groups from largest to smallest. For example, you can start off with large compound movements such as body weight squats or lunges, then move on to back exercises like a bent-over row or seated row, then a chest press, and finally an overhead press, biceps curl, triceps extension, and then core (abdominal) exercises. This is a very basic generic routine, but will certainly get you moving in the right direction.
Start your resistance training routine by performing short duration sessions of approximately 15 to 20 minutes. See how your body tolerates this and then progress from there. Be careful not to overdo it, as a marathon training session may leave you sore and potentially discourage you from continuing with your exercise program.
As mentioned above, start off with light resistance so you can focus first on form and then progress to heavier weights. Start with a weight that allows you to perform 10 to 15 repetitions. When you can easily get to 15 without any undue fatigue, then consider increasing your weight by 3 to 5 percent (general rule). Seek specific advice from your cardiologist or surgeon for when you can bump up your weights.
You can perform weight training 2 to 3 times per week. The days in between are to allow for recovery (i.e., your muscles grow stronger).
Strength Training Precautions For Open Heart Surgery
- As with aerobic training, obtain physician clearance before starting any strength training program.
- Numbness in the chest area is normal after open heart surgery. The surgery entails cutting nerves in your chest but the feeling usually returns within one year.
- If signs or symptoms occur during resistance training, stop training immediately. If symptoms do not improve, or if they worsen during rest, seek immediate medical attention.
Take Home Message
Properly prescribed structured exercise is an important step in the recovery process after open heart surgery. Exercise, along with rest, a healthy diet, and medications can help you progress through your recovery in the most efficient manner possible.
While the immediate post-surgery, post-discharge period can be daunting, start off slow and ease yourself towards longer durations for your aerobic activity and heavier weights in your resistance training program.
Be aware of how you’re feeling during exercise and watch out for any signs and symptoms which might indicate complications.
If your open heart surgery procedure was a result of coronary artery disease, then it is particularly important that you maintain a healthy lifestyle to minimise the chances of your arteries reoccluding (blocking up again).